Biotin - Vitamin B7 - Vitamin H
At Vitamin H. it is a water soluble vitamin of Vitamin B complex, more precisely around Vitamin B7 or Biotin called.
The intake of vitamin H is particularly widespread Skin, hair and Nails to strengthen, in this function it can also be found in many preparations on the drugstore shelf. But vitamin H also fulfills many other functions. As with other vitamins, in most cases a balanced diet does not lead to a lack of vitamin H. In the case of a one-sided diet or in the case of rare, genetic metabolic diseases affecting the biotin metabolism, however, hypovitaminosis, i.e. a vitamin H deficiency, can occur.
Also can a Biotin deficiency as a result of a Renal dysfunction in which there may be an increased excretion of biotin in the urine.
A feed of 30-60 micrograms / day is sufficient for a healthy adult according to the German Nutrition Society.
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Occurrence and structure
Biotin It occurs in chocolate, nuts, egg yolks and liver, among other things, and it is also produced by our intestinal bacteria. It is a Urea derivativewhich means that the urea makes up part of its structure.
Vitamin H fulfills a multitude of functions in the human organism. Vitamin H is of central importance, for example, in the functioning of many metabolic pathways. Vitamin H is a so-called Coenzymethat means it is crucial for the function of many enzymes. Enzymes in turn have an important function in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. They accelerate many reactions in the body or make them possible in the first place, so they act like catalysts.
Vitamin H is also important for the lifespan of numerous cells, such as the cells of the nervous tissue, the cells of the blood system, but also the sebum glands. Biotin also has an important function in the cell nucleus and can change the readability of human DNA, so it is partly responsible for which genes can be read and which cannot.
In the human body there is a recycling process for biotin, that is, the biotin that has already been "used" for a metabolic reaction is brought back to its original state by other enzymes and is thus available to the body for new metabolic reactions. However, this cycle is not completely closed, because biotin can be lost through excretion with the urine, for example. This then has to be replaced by the biotin in the daily diet.
Biotin is a cofactor in Carboxylation reactions, i.e. when appending Carboxyl (C-) groups. An example of reactions in which it participates is the first reaction of gluconeogenesis, i.e. the production of glucose (Pyruvate carboxylase reaction).
Vitamin H can not produced by the human organism However, it is stored in the body to some extent by attaching it to a protein that prevents it from being excreted in the urine.
It comes in numerous foods naturally, so that there should be no deficiency in a balanced diet.
One of the foods that are particularly rich in biotin is Baker's yeastwhich, with about 200 micrometers of vitamin H per 100g of yeast, contains most of the vitamin H. Other foods with a high vitamin H content also include, for example Oatmeal, milk, spinach, such as Soy products, nuts and animal innards, like liver and Kidney.
There are also certain bacteria in the natural intestinal flora of humans that produce vitamin H during their natural metabolic processes. However, it is not yet fully clear to what extent this vitamin H is absorbed by the human body and plays a role.
A vitamin H deficiency can lead to a wide range of symptoms. In the case of a vitamin H deficiency, as with many other vitamins, a persistent tirednesst and the feeling of Exhaustion be a deficiency symptom. Also more far-reaching neurological symptomssuch as depression or hallucinations, as well as tingling and numbness of individual limbs can be the result of this deficiency.
In addition, there are external symptoms, such as brittle nails or dull, falling hair or Changes in hair color, as well as a scaly red rash which mainly shows around the mouth, nose and eyes.
Also can immune system be impaired by a deficiency of biotin, this can result in increased bacterial or fungal infections. A lack of biotin can also be the cause of anemia or low blood pressure.
A deficiency can have many different causes. Kidney dysfunction can for example lead to an increased excretion of biotin. Patients requiring dialysis suffer more from a vitamin H deficiency. The absorption of vitamin H can also lead to a disruption and thus insufficient vitamin H can be absorbed. This is the case with short bowel syndrome and disorders of the intestinal flora.
Also Medicationsuch as anticonvulsants, which are used to treat epilepsy, can lead to a lack of biotin. Another cause of increased consumption and thus a lack of vitamin H is pregnancy. Long-term alcohol abuse can lead to a lack of vitamin H in addition to many other deficiency symptoms.
Since biotin (Vitamin B7) is produced by the body's own bacteria, a deficiency symptom is extremely rare. However, the substance binds Avidin, which is found in egg white, biotin and thus inactivates it. In subjects who were regularly administered avidin, symptoms such as Flaky skin, depressions and Muscle aches.
Vitamin H supplements are available in many different compositions and price ranges. Vitamin H supplements are already cheap Capsule shape in the Drugstore to obtain. They usually also contain other vitamins and minerals such as zinc, iron or pantothenic acid.
Also in the pharmacy these vitamin supplements are available. Biotin preparations that are approved as pharmaceuticals usually have a biotin amount of 2.5 to 5 mg per tablet. In the case of a clinical biotin deficiency, these preparations have been shown to lead to an improvement in symptoms.
However, it has not yet been proven whether the daily intake of vitamin H preparations in healthy adults leads to stronger nails and more shine in the hair.
Overdose of vitamin H
Overdosing with vitamin H is generally not possible as it is a water-soluble vitamin that is excreted with the urine if there is too much in the body.
Overview of vitamins
Water-soluble (hydrophilic) vitamins:
- Vitamin B1 - thiamine
- Vitamin B2 - riboflavin
- Vitamin B3 - niacin
- Vitamin B5 - pantothenic acid
- Vitamin B6 - pyridoxal / pyridoxine / pyridoxamine
- Vitamin B7 - biotin
- Vitamin B9 - folic acid
- Vitamin B12 - Cobalamin
Fat-soluble (hydrophobic) vitamins:
- Vitamin A - retinol
- Vitamin C - ascorbic acid
- Vitamin D - calcitriol
- Vitamin E - tocopherol
- Vitamin K - phylloquinone / menaquinone