Vaccinations in general are divided into active and passive vaccinations.
Active vaccinations stimulate the immune system to independently develop immunity against certain pathogens.
Passive vaccinations, on the other hand, are required when the time is tight to wait for the immune reaction to an active vaccine. This is where immune system components, so-called antibody, administered directly to the person concerned to avert an acute course of the disease.
The active vaccination described above can be carried out with live vaccines and inactivated vaccines. Live vaccines contain reproductive but weakened pathogens that only stimulate the immune system in order to be able to give an adequate response to the pathogen in the event of contact. A single vaccination already offers protection.
The second vaccination is used to record so-called vaccination failures, people in whom the immune system does not generate sufficient immunity after a vaccination.
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Differences to the dead vaccine
Inactivated vaccines, as part of active vaccination, on the other hand only contain components of pathogens or dead, non-reproductive pathogens, which makes the main difference.
Furthermore, to achieve long-lasting protection, several vaccinations must be carried out in order to ensure complete vaccination protection. This usually takes place in several partial and booster vaccinations. In general, inactivated vaccines are better tolerated and cause fewer side effects than weakened pathogens in the context of a live vaccination.
The combination of dead vaccines without a specific time interval is usually possible and harmless. The vaccination takes place in the large deltoid muscle on the upper arm. If vaccination reactions occur, this is usually irritation at the injection site, but slight visible reactions of the body to the vaccination are also possible in one out of a hundred cases.
These usually occur in the first 72 hours after vaccination and vary depending on the patient and vaccine and often mean mild flu-like symptoms. Examples of dead vaccines are hepatitis A and B, rabies, polio, TBE, whooping cough, cholera, tetanus and diphtheria, as well as others.
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List of live vaccines
- Mumps (M)
- Measles (M)
- Rubella (R)
- Chickenpox (V, varicella)
- Yellow fever
- Typhoid (as an oral vaccination)
- Polio (outdated oral vaccination! - now carried out as a dead vaccination)
- Rotavirus (oral vaccination)
MMR - measles-mumps-rubella vaccination
MMR is an abbreviation for the triple vaccination against mumps, measles and rubella.
These are infectious diseases caused by viruses, all three of which can be transmitted by a droplet infection and in some cases cause severe disease with possible irreversible long-term damage. As mentioned above, the vaccination takes place as a triple combination from the 11th to the 14th. Month of life.
Before that, the child is protected by immune components from the mother. The vaccination may also include the chickenpox vaccine (Varicella) must be attached.
The second vaccination takes place between the ages of 15 and 23 months, this should be done at least 4 weeks apart.
A second vaccination is used to record so-called non-responders or vaccination failures, as in 5% of all vaccinated people insufficient protection is observed from the first vaccination. Immunity can be checked through special blood tests.
Women with unclear vaccination status who are planning a pregnancy and are not sure about their vaccination status should be vaccinated in good time before pregnancy to avoid possible harm to the unborn child from the diseases mentioned above.
Read more on the subject at: MMR vaccination - mumps, measles, and rubella
Live vaccination during pregnancy
The planned pregnancy offers time in advance to check the vaccination status by the treating doctor and, if necessary, re-vaccinate. During pregnancy it is possible that mother and child can be harmed by certain infectious diseases that can be prevented by vaccinations.
So if the vaccination status is unknown or uncertain, a re-vaccination should be carried out before the planned pregnancy. When pregnancy has occurred, vaccinations with live vaccines may no longer be carried out, as damage to the child in the womb cannot be ruled out.
If vaccination with a live vaccine was carried out during an unknowingly existing pregnancy, this does not constitute a reason for termination of the pregnancy. In addition to live vaccines, dead vaccines should not be administered during pregnancy, but in urgent cases it is necessary to make an exception.
Read more on the topic: Vaccination during pregnancy