Production of adrenaline in the adrenal medulla

Formation of adrenaline:

These stress hormones adrenaline and noradrenaline are produced in the adrenal medulla and in nerve cells from the amino acid tyrosine.
With the help of enzymes this is first converted into L-DOPA (L-dihydroxy-phenylalanine). Then, enzymatically, dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline are produced with the help of vitamins (C, B6), copper, folic acid and magnesium.
Adrenaline binds to so-called adrenergic receptors, which are among the cell surface receptors. Noradrenaline also has noradrenergic receptors belonging to the cell surface receptors.


regulation of adrenaline:

The distribution of adrenaline is caused by nerve stimuli or others Hormones (Cortisol) increased. The production is inhibited by negative feedback at high adrenaline concentrations, which prevent the formation of the starting material tyrosine. The enzymes catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and monoamine oxidase (MAO). The end products are eventually excreted in the urine.
The distribution of noradrenaline is through stress by activating the sympathetic nervous system promoted. The effect is ended by Norepinephrine is taken up again in the producing cells or broken down into adrenaline or vanillin-mandelic acid.



The Stress hormones adrenaline and Norepinephrine affect both the metabolism and the circulatory system. In Stressful situations are these hormones capable of that Cardiovascular system activate by the Heart rate and the blood pressure is increased and the lung bronchi are enlarged. The result is increased physical performance.
In addition, under the influence of hormones, energy reserves are created by releasing sugar (Glucose), New sugar formation (Gluconeogenesis) as well as fat loss (Lipolysis) mobilized and supplied to the muscles through increased blood flow. The mobility (peristalsis) of the gastrointestinal tract is inhibited.
In this way, the hormones as a whole are intended to enable a rapid escape reaction in emergency situations.
Norepinephrine is also an important nerve transmitter (Neurotransmitters) in the sympathetic nervous system; Adrenaline plays a subordinate role in this regard. Furthermore, norepinephrine has a pain reliever (analgesic) Effectiveness.

Effects of adrenaline in the human body

The Effects of adrenaline in the human body takes place in various different organ and body areas and fulfills its function as Stress hormone.
Its main tasks are handled by adrenaline in

  • Cardiovascular system
  • in the Gastrointestinal tract
  • in the Musculature
  • the breathing
  • in the brain and i
  • m fat- and Sugar metabolism of cells.

In the cardiovascular system, it can centralize the blood within a few seconds Increase blood pressure and thus provide blood reserves for a potential stressful situation.
It binds alpha1, beta1 and beta2-adrenoreceptors, which can cause different reactions depending on the organ area. Small vessels in the peripheral areas of the body, for example the skin, contract while the large central blood vessels and those of the muscles expand.
This leads to large amounts of blood being redistributed in order to increase the supply to the muscles. The heart beats faster and stronger, which increases the blood pressure and increases the supply performance of the heart.

Adrenaline also has an influence on the body via the same receptors Gastrointestinal tract and breathing. Smooth muscles relax under the influence of adrenaline.
That leads to the movement of the gastrointestinal tract and therefore the digestion is restricted. A relaxation of the smooth muscles also causes the bronchial tubes to contract less and, overall, by widening the airways, breathing is made easier.

In fat and muscle cells, adrenaline also influences the metabolism via the adrenal receptors. Fat loss is promoted and provides new energy reserves. The sugar content in the blood increases significantly through the increased build-up of sugar molecules and through the release of the hormone glucagon. The muscle can absorb and convert more energy reserves and thus increase its activity.

The adrenaline also triggers smaller reactions in the central nervous system, in the eyes, on the skin and in various other organs, all of which correspond to the function of the stress hormone. The blood pressure rises, the central blood flow is increased, the muscles increase their basal metabolic rate and the overall activity of the body is increased within a few seconds after the adrenaline has been released.

Lower adrenaline

Since adrenaline is one of the most powerful contributors to stress responses, excessive release can have serious consequences. People who have permanently high adrenaline levels suffer all the effects of the hormone as a permanent condition.
Anxiety, a constant feeling of stress, high blood pressure, elevated glucose levels and long-term cardiovascular problems are some of the risks associated with increased adrenaline.
The best way to consciously lower the adrenaline level is to avoid situations that lead to the release of the hormone. Stressful situations at work or in everyday life have a particularly strong long-term effect on the adrenaline level. If you succeed in avoiding or reducing stressful situations, you will quickly notice the physical decrease in stress.

Targeted breathing exercises also help to reduce stress in stressful situations. External influences such as noise, fast movements, switching off frequent touches, closing your eyes and taking several deep breaths cause a reduction in the hormone level for the moment. In combination with relaxation exercises, the Breathing exercises also as a long-term therapy to lower the stress level.
Endurance sports, if done comfortably for yourself, can also give you physical rest. In the long term, however, it is most effective in avoiding the daily stress at work, everyday life and family.


Under a Adrenaline pen one understands a pre-filled syringe for use at home on oneself.
They are mainly used in emergencies with allergy sufferers who are at risk for anaphylactic allergic reactions consists.

For example, it is immediately after Insect bites or other triggers of the allergy and is the first choice for self-administration for hypersensitivity reactions.
The Adrenaline pen on the outer thigh and the drug is injected into the muscle. Pens are available with different drugs to use for different diseases.

For those with severe allergies, we recommend the adrenaline pens for emergencies at home, as they can be kept for one to two years thanks to an antioxidant. The pens contain between 150 to 300 micrograms Adrenaline.

The allergy sufferer must learn from the doctor in which situations the pen must be used and how exactly it should be used. If the effect of the adrenaline is insufficient, another injection can be given after 5 minutes at the earliest.


Norepinephrine is a hormone that is also produced in the adrenal gland and is very similar to adrenaline.

The main task of noradrenaline is in the central nervous system, where it is released as a neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft. It is very similar to adrenaline in the reactions it triggers.

Like adrenaline, it also functions as a hormone. It also increases blood pressure and can be used in emergency medicine, for example for anaphylactic reactions. It also functions as a stress hormone and in these situations it is increasingly released into the bloodstream as a hormone.

Norepinephrine can be used better in emergency medicine because it centralizes the blood and, even in lower doses, can raise blood pressure without having the undesirable metabolic effects of adrenaline.

Also read our topic: Norepinephrine