Vomiting blood


Vomiting is one of many diseases symptom or one Accompanying phenomenon.

It can come in many different varieties. This is a special form of vomiting Vomiting blood. These are blood admixtures, which in most cases come from the upper gastrointestinal tract.

In medical terminology, this becomes Vomit of blood as Hematemesis and gives an indication of a Injury in the digestive tract. Often the blood has its origin either from the stomach, upper intestines or even the esophagus.

A distinction is also made as to whether it is fresh or older blood. Fresh blood you can tell by its light red color and that it is still very fluid.
Old blood is rather dark red to brown. This is because the blood has been in the stomach for a long time and has already clotted there. The blood is usually a bit clumped and the vomit can be seen coffee grounds out.

Sudden vomiting of blood can occur in a patient on one serious illness or indicate injury. Therefore, a doctor should be consulted immediately if it occurs. Possible diseases include Esophageal cancer or injuries like a crack, bleeding Stomach ulcers or cancer, severe gastritis, or various bowel diseases that affect the duodenum. The cause of the discomfort should be found as quickly as possible, because in the event of an injury that continues to bleed, it will also occur internal bleeding to death can lead. In some cases, the cause can be harmless, such as the Epistaxiswhich made the person sick and vomited.

Bleeding that occurs in the lower digestive tract occur, are more likely not to vomit, but are admixtures or deposits with bowel movement. Here, too, you can clearly distinguish between fresh and old blood. This often gives an initial indication of where the bleeding could be located.


There are several different causes that lead to vomiting of blood (Hematemesis) being able to lead. The vomiting of blood represents a major symptom of one Bleeding in the upper digestive tract (Gastrointestinal tract). The source of bleeding can be at very different locations. Typically it is then bright red bloodvomiting. The upper digestive tract extends from the esophagus to the junction of the duodenum (Duodenum) into the jejunum (Jejunum). The most common cause of such bleeding are Intestinal or stomach ulcerthat can have different causes.

Furthermore you can Mucosal injuries of the esophagus lead to vomiting of blood. A severe reflux disease the esophagus may also cause vomiting of blood. Other causes are Tumors of the stomach and esophaguswhich can also bleed.
One cause that cannot be neglected is Bleeding from the esophagus, often with a longstanding Cirrhosis of the liver or one excessive alcoholism are socialized. This includes, for example, variceal bleeding, in which it bleeds from pathologically enlarged vessels in the esophagus. That should be mentioned in this context Mallory-Weiss Syndromewhich occurs mainly in alcoholics and leads to tears in the mucous membrane in the esophagus, which also cause blood to be vomited.

As the cause of Vomiting blood other diseases come into question.

  • esophagus: Particularly common causes of vomiting blood are a Rupture of the esophagus or Esophageal cancer.
  • Stomach area: Severe gastritis can damage the gastric mucosa to such an extent that even deeper layers of the wall that are well supplied with blood are affected by the inflammation, causing the stomach contents to mix with blood. Read more on this topic at: Inflammation of the stomach lining. It is similar with stomach ulcers.
  • Alcohol abuse: Long and chronic alcohol abuse leads to damage to the esophagus and stomach. These patients may also vomit blood at an advanced stage.
  • Eating disorder: Blood vomiting can also occur in patients with an eating disorder. In bulimia, patients eat food first, but then vomit it again. This frequent flow of acidic stomach contents causes the Massive damage to the esophagus. In addition, when vomiting, a strong pressure builds up in the abdomen, which can lead to the Arteries in the esophagus burst.
  • Tuberculosis: This disease, which is no longer all that common today, is associated with vomiting of blood at a later stage.
  • Other causes can be, for example, poisoning from medication or drugs.

Many more causes of vomiting can be found on our more extensive page: Causes of Vomiting

Vomiting blood from cancer

Finally, another possible cause of vomiting blood can also be cancer be. The cancer can be located in the esophagus as well as in the stomach or upper intestinal tract. Cancer often develops in the organs lined with mucous membranes such as the stomach, intestines and the esophagus as a result of inflammation.

For example, a chronic inflammation the lining of the stomach massive tissue damage can occur, which even penetrates deeper wall layers. Because of this damage it comes to increased cell division to repair the mucosal defect. It can happen that the tissue does not differentiate into the original tissue of the gastric mucosa, but rather degenerate. In this case one speaks in the medicine from Metaplasia.
On the basis of this degeneration of the cells can also be dangerous Tumor cells arise that eventually multiply and also aggressive grow into the surrounding tissue. In addition to the top layer of the mucous membrane, the other tissue layers are displaced and damaged by tumor cells.
There Tumors with a fast growth also very well with blood need to be supplied, the blood vessels often multiply there too. If the tissue is finally damaged, it can also bleed from the tumor and thus break blood.

Similarly, cancer also arises in the esophagus or at Colon cancer.

Another possibility is that cancer cells have over the Blood or lymphatic system Scatter into the organs mentioned and the primary tumor sits elsewhere. In this case one speaks of Metastases.

Vomiting of blood from a stomach ulcer

At a Gastric ulcer it is a damaged area of ​​the mucous membrane in the stomach lining. In the technical language, the stomach ulcer is called Gastric ulcer designated.

The ulcer can arise from various causes. In many cases there is one excessive production of Stomach acid in front. Although the gastric mucosa is protected from the hydrochloric acid by a layer of mucus, it can happen in different parts of the stomach Mucous membrane does not offer adequate protection. The stomach acid is then in direct contact with the cell layer and damages it. As a result, it comes to severe inflammationthat can penetrate deeper layers.

Furthermore can also various drugs have a similar effect when taken frequently.
These drugs include, for example Acetylsalicysl acid (ASS) or cortisone Medication. These should therefore always be accompanied by a Gastric protection preparation be taken.

Another trigger for a stomach ulcer can be a certain bacteria be that Helicobacter pylori. This bacterium colonizes the stomach and uses a certain enzyme to neutralize stomach acid. This allows it to break through the protective mucous layer of the stomach lining cells. These are then also no longer protected from the hydrochloric acid in the stomach and inflammation develops.

Peptic ulcers resolve in the patient severe pain and Food intolerance out. In addition, these ulcers can break through too Bleeding come. The blood mixes with the stomach contents. Many patients feel sick and vomit. Fresh or older blood is then found in the vomit.

Vomiting blood after alcohol

Vomiting blood is also often one of the ailments that after years of excessive Alcohol consumption occurs.

The alcohol becomes the liver massively damagedso that the liver cells are increasingly destroyed. As a result, the liver can gradually no longer fulfill its function. The blood supply to the liver is also disturbed, as the blood transported to the liver accumulates.

Over years after Bypass circuitswhich also cause blood to increase towards the esophagus (Esophagus) runs back. Since the esophagus cannot withstand the pressure of the increased amounts of blood, they form thickened veins in the esophagus, as Varices, i.e. varicose veins. In extreme cases, this can Veins tear and it comes to one life threatening and massive Esophageal variceal bleedingwhich is also associated with vomiting blood.

In addition, alcoholics have increased from toxic alcohol and regular harmful consumption inflamed mucous membrane in the esophagus and stomach. Accordingly, it can also increasingly lead to blood admixtures Vomit as this inflammation occasionally bleeds spontaneously.

Also read our topic: Vomiting from alcohol

Vomiting of blood in Crohn's disease

As Crohn's disease becomes a chronic inflammatory disease of Digestive tract designated.

Inflammatory mucosal defects occur more frequently, which are primarily localized in the small intestine, large intestine and very rarely in the esophagus. The cause of the occurrence of this disease is not yet fully understood.
To this day we know that there is a hereditary component there, which means that the disease can increasingly occur in a family. Furthermore, it can also be a autoimmune response act. This means, antibody the body's own defenses are directed against the tissue of the intestine and destroy it.

The inflammation of the mucous membrane often runs through almost all wall layers, what is called transmural referred to as. Foci of inflammation form, which can also break open, causing it to occasionally increase Bleeding can come. Since the Illness in attacks can occur, the patient suffers in an acute phase and Pain, Weight loss and Diarrhea.

In addition, severe inflammation occurs as well fever, nausea and also Vomit on. The vomit can be mixed with blood and indicates that deep layers of the wall of the mucous membrane have already been damaged. There is then an increased risk of being stronger intestinal bleeding (i.e. "affecting the bowel"). These should be checked and treated as soon as possible using a colonoscopy. By vomiting you can too Inflammation in the oral cavity arise.

Vomiting of blood after taking Voltaren® / Dicolfenac

At Voltaren® or. Diclofenac is it a moderate pain reliever, which can be used in many ways.
Voltaren® tablets are not well tolerated by all patients, as they can often cause stomach problems. After prolonged use the ingredients attack the lining of the stomach and inflammations and ulcers can develop.

This inflammation can lead to mucosal defects of varying degrees in different places. These defects can spread over a large area and penetrate into the depths. The patients then suffer from severe stomach pain or cramps. It can also diarrhea or Vomit occur.
When vomiting, blood may be mixed in. This can happen when the Tear ulcers or Inflammation creates deep woundswho then start to bleed. Often times, the bleeding itself makes the patient sick and vomit. In the event of vomiting blood, the bleeding should definitely be followed up.

The patient can consult the attending physician at the first complaint. In the best case scenario, complications such as stomach ulcers and inflammation can be prevented at an early stage by stopping the drug.

Concomitant symptoms

The accompanying symptoms of vomiting blood depend on the underlying cause for that very thing. At a chronic blood loss can it become a Anemia (anemia), which typically leads to paleness and general fatigue and tiredness.
When bleeding of the upper digestive tract is also a so-called Tarry stool, which is called Melena, typical. This is a kind of black stool caused by bleeding.

With a short intestinal passage, the stool can also be colored bright red by the blood. This is known as Hematochezia. There are many more specific symptoms related to the existing condition that is causing the vomiting. At a Stomach or intestinal ulcer can Pain when eating and non-specific abdominal pain to be available. nausea and a Bloating such as Upper abdominal pain are again typical of one Inflammation of the stomach lining (gastritis). Diseases of the esophagus can lead to difficulties in eating or to swallowing difficulties.


The loss of blood when vomiting blood must always checked by a doctor be there too potentially life-threatening clinical pictures can hide behind it. It is also important that Find the source of the bleeding and to breastfeed. To find the source of the bleeding a Reflection of the upper digestive tract (Gastroscopy, Esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy) carried out. In addition, a blood test to look for anemia is useful. In this way you can estimate whether the bleeding has been around for a long time.


The therapy for vomiting blood shows great individual differences, as very different clinical pictures can be the cause. Hence there is so to speak no "standard therapy"to treat vomiting of blood. In the acute case one large blood loss can Infusions and blood transfusions to be necessary. Various therapeutic approaches are possible in combating the causes.

Tumor bleeding can, for example Removal of the tumor or chemotherapy and irradiations are addressed. Bleeding stomach and intestinal ulcers are treated with gastroscopy. The bleeding is then stopped with the help of clips or substances that are injected under. Acute bleeding from the esophagus, e.g. as part of a variceal bleeding, are usually also endoscopically breastfed. A Circulatory stabilization is absolutely necessary. Major operations may be necessary less often if the bleeding cannot be stopped otherwise.

Duration of vomiting

The duration of the vomiting of blood cannot be predicted as generally as it is great individual differences gives. Often it is only short and small bleeding that stops in a few minutes. However, this can lead to continuous bleeding for weeks and, as a result, vomiting of blood. Large bleeding, for example with variceal bleeding, can, however, last for a long time and represent an emergency. Therefore, whenever you vomit blood you should always have a prompt clarification by a doctor respectively.

Mortality from vomiting blood

The bleeding can also be more harmless serious reasons have and thus also life threatening be for the patient. In many cases it is minor bleeding due to Inflammation originated in the stomach or intestines. These positions can be accessed using a Stomach- or Colonoscopy can be easily achieved.

If the bleeding is not too heavy, the bleeding can be stopped very well. The patient therefore has a very low risk of dying.

In the case of other types of bleeding, the source of the bleeding can also be very unfavorable. Bleeding in the esophagus are often difficult to access. It can also be bleeding from varicose veins, which are very well filled and therefore bleed heavily.

The risk of dying from this complication is therefore significantly higher if treatment is not carried out in a timely and effective manner. That also plays Age and other Secondary diseases an important role in the patient's chances of survival in vomiting blood. Patients who are older and also in a poor general condition may also be less able to tolerate bleeding from the circulatory point of view and die more likely than younger and healthier patients.