Testicular swelling


At a Testicular swelling in most cases it is unilateral Enlargement of a testiclethat can be associated with or without pain. Since there are many different causes for swelling of one or both testicles, a quick diagnosis is useful in order to be able to initiate suitable therapy.


The causes of testicular swelling can be very diverse. Testicular swelling is a symptom that occurs due to a medical condition. Mostly, diseases from the urological field are a trigger.

One possible cause is twisting of the testicle, or testicular torsion. The twisting causes the spermatic cord to twist and the blood supply to the testicle is stopped. Emergency treatment should be rapid, as severe pain occurs and the affected testicle can die within a relatively short time.

Testicular swelling can also occur as part of inflammation of the epididymis. Bacteria and viruses that enter the body via the urethra and spread via the spermatic cord to the epididymis can settle there and cause infections.

Inflammation of the testicle causes severe pain, fever, a general feeling of exhaustion and a red discoloration of the scrotum as well as swelling of the testicle.

Read more about this in our main article: What are the causes of testicular inflammation?

In addition to infections of the urinary tract, infections such as mumps, chickenpox or Pfeiffer's glandular fever are often a cause of testicular inflammation.

A very painful swelling of the testicle can also occur as a result of traumatic events, such as an accident.

Testicular swelling that is painless is relatively rare. This can be caused by a cyst of the epididymis, a tumorous change, an accumulation of water or an inguinal hernia.

Testicular swelling can also be caused by a varicose vein on the testicle. As a result of the disturbed blood backflow in the testicular veins, blood accumulates in the testicles, which leads to an increase in the size of the testicle. You can find more about this at: Varicose veins on the testicles - It's that dangerous!


Since swelling of one or both testicles can occur due to various causes, various therapeutic options are available.

There is one cause of the complaints Testicular torsion (Testicle twist), surgical treatment is indicated immediately, as there is a risk that the affected testicle will die as a result of the interrupted blood supply.
In order to prevent tissue death and further damage and to ensure fertility, an operation must be performed within a few hours. The attending surgeon opens the scrotum, loosens the twisting of the testicle and restores normal blood flow. Then the testicle is sutured to the scrotum to prevent it from being twisted again.

If swelling of the testicle develops due to inflammation of the epididymis or other bacterial inflammatory processes, antibiotic therapy is carried out in combination with the use of painkillers. In addition, rest should be observed and the affected testicle should be elevated with the help of a testicular bank. Cooling the testicle is also recommended.
The treating urologist should check it so that possible abscesses on the testicles, which can form as part of an inflammation, can be detected at an early stage. If the treatment is successful, the symptoms subside completely after about 10 to 14 days. In rare cases, a chronic course can set in.

Testicular swelling caused by a water break (hydrocele) or a water-filled cyst does not necessarily have to be treated immediately, as long as the swelling does not cause pain or a feeling of pressure that is too strong. In this context, check-ups should not be dispensed with.

The swelling of the testicle goes from a Varicose veins in the testicle (Varicocele), there are different therapeutic approaches. Treatment is recommended because a varicocele has a Loss of function of the cells in the testicle and poor development of the sperm can go hand in hand.

One option for treatment is Sclerotherapy of the enlarged vessels. Here, a catheter is inserted through which an agent can be administered which obliterates the vessels.
Another treatment option is one Embolizationwhich leads to an occlusion of the affected vessels. The varicocele and the associated swelling of the testicle can also be treated surgically by severing the vessels.

A swelling of the testicles that is part of a Inguinal hernia noticeable should also be treated. An inguinal hernia is not an acute emergency like that Testicular torsion, but an operative correction should be made in the near future.

If the swelling is caused by a tumorous change in the area of ​​the testicle, a tissue sample should be taken and analyzed. Will be used as part of this investigation Testicular tumor diagnosed, can have further operations as well as Rays- or chemotherapy be indexed.

Swelling of the testicle that occurs after surgery such as a Groin or prostate surgery occur, are usually short-lived and decline within a few days. In this context, a Immobilization and cooling of the testicle recommended to alleviate the symptoms.

Testicular swelling without pain

Testicular swelling that occurs without pain is much less common.

Evolve Varicose veins in the scrotum, a so-called Varicocele, this can occur both with and without pain. This is a Expansion of the veins in the testicle, due to a disorder in the outflow of blood. Blood congestion occurs, as a result of which the vessels expand and varicose veins develop.
Often these varicose veins are painless and show no further symptoms apart from a slight swelling, so that they are only noticed as an incidental finding. However, some patients experience testicular swelling alongside them strong pain and a scrotum under tension on.

Also one Cyst in the epididymis can become a painless swelling of the testicle to lead. This is a benign enlargement that rests against the epididymis and is filled with a fluid. Since it usually does not cause any symptoms, this is usually a chance diagnosis, which is discovered as a secondary finding during a normal ultrasound examination.

At a water- or Inguinal hernia A massive painless swelling can develop if there is a build-up of fluid due to a leak in the inguinal canal.
In some cases, swelling can also result from a tumorous change in the testicle area.

Testicular swelling in children

Testicular swelling, which manifests itself in childhood, most often occurs as a result of a Testicular torsion (Testicular twist) on. In most cases, children and adolescents are affected.
For small children, the Testicular torsion the most common cause of acute and severe Pain in the testicle area represent. By a Twisting of the testicle and spermatic cord the blood supply to the testicles is interrupted.

A twisting of the testicle can result in unusual movements Sports, at Accidents or through Injuries occur. For many patients, there is one in advance congenital defect in the development of the spermatic cord and testicular membrane what can promote testicular torsion. This can even affect toddlers Sleep twisting of the testicle. Due to the interrupted blood supply, the testicle dies within a relatively short time. Therefore is a immediate emergency medical Treatment urgently indicated. The patients become due to strong, sudden onset Pain, one Redness of the scrotum, such as Nausea and vomiting presented. After the diagnosis has been made, a immediate surgery to be able to save the damaged testicle.

In babies and toddlers, testicular swelling often occurs as part of a Waterfall (Hydrocele) on.

Also infectious diseases, such as mumps or chicken pox can cause swelling of the testicles, especially in young boys. Swelling of the testicles, which is related to infectious childhood diseases, should not be underestimated as the infection spreads to the testicles and to a local inflammation and in the worst case to infertility can lead.

Unilateral testicular swelling

A unilateral testicular swelling usually occurs more often than bilateral changes. It can occur in both children and adults.

Usually a unilateral swelling is caused by a Twisting of a testicle, the so-called Testicular torsion, triggered. She kicks preferably in childhood on.
Also inflammatory changes in the epididymis can lead to unilateral swelling.
As part of a Inguinal hernia in most cases there is also a unilateral testicular swelling. The affected side is the one on which the fracture is located.
Tumor changes manifest themselves in most cases as well only on one testicle.

Testicular swelling after inguinal hernia operation

As a result of surgical treatment of a Inguinal hernia often one develops Swelling of the testicle. In the case of an inguinal hernia, the area in which the surgical intervention is carried out is directly above the testicle. A surgical procedure always results in swelling and irritation of the affected tissue and clearly visible bruises can develop. Since the Inguinal canal is very narrow due to anatomical reasons, the swelling resulting from the inguinal operation spreads further towards the testicles, as there is more space available. This can result in massive swelling of the testicle, as well as a significant one Discoloration due to bruising develop.

In order to prevent swelling of the testicles as a result of a groin operation, the affected men are often advised to wear tight-fitting underpants after the operation. They are usually very comfortable to wear, have a pain-relieving effect and reduce the occurrence of severe testicular swelling. If, despite this preventive measure, swelling of the testicles does occur, it can be treated with a so-called Testicular bank counteract. The testicle can be elevated through this testicular bank, which leads to relief.

Testicular swelling after groin surgery is a known complication and is not dangerous. After a few days the swelling will decrease significantly and healed after about 2 weeks. The swelling should not be reduced and additionally strong pain a doctor should be consulted.

Testicular swelling after prostate surgery

The occurrence of swelling of the testicles may be related to surgery on the prostate stand. Used as part of a Cancer a radical removal of the prostate will be carried out in addition local lymph nodes with removed. This creates an interruption within the Lymphatic drainage pathways. It can be used in this context Lymphatic congestion which can lead to severe testicular swelling. It takes some time for the lymph to find a new drainage route. That's why it usually takes time 2 to 3 daysuntil the swelling of the testicle subsides. To counteract the swelling, the testicle should be something chilled and stored up become.

In addition to testicular swelling, there may also be a Distribution of the lymph in the small pelvis or in the Legs come. Also one inflammationthat are part of a Prostate OP can cause swelling of the testicle. The swelling usually lasts only a few days and disappears on its own. If pain or additional symptoms such as fever or fatigue occur, it makes sense to consult a doctor.