Metabolic syndrome


The metabolic syndrome is not an independent disease but a Combination of different diseases, all of them Risk factors for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease represent.
Meanwhile, the metabolic syndrome affects about 25% of the German population and the tendency is increasing. This is due, among other things, to the growing wealth of the population and the resulting ways of life, such as little physical work, little exercise and food in abundance.

The factors that make up metabolic syndrome include:

  • obesity (Obesity)
  • high blood pressure
  • increased fat levels in the blood
  • increased cholesterol
  • Insulin resistance or a pronounced one Type 2 diabetes mellitus


Plaques increasingly narrow the vessels, which leads to circulatory disorders.

The exact cause of the metabolic syndrome cannot be identified. What is certain is that Fat cells a crucial role in the development of all symptoms of metabolic syndrome play.

So one of the main causes is one high calorie diet combined with lack of exercise. Not only can this Obesitybut also one Insulin resistance arise. The hormone insulin is responsible for regulating the blood sugar level and ensures that the sugar that is absorbed from food is absorbed into the muscle and fat cells. If this regulation is disturbed, the ingested sugar is no longer properly metabolized and settles in the form of fat in the abdominal region. Insulin resistance can result in the further course a Develop diabetes.

In addition, the Reduced excretion of water and salts via the kidneyswhat a high blood pressure can arise.
Also one genetic predisposition can be part of the cause of metabolic syndrome. There is often a familial predisposition to insulin resistance, which is further promoted by an unhealthy lifestyle.

All of these symptoms can lead to Calcification of the coronary vessels come. The high blood pressure causes the smallest damage in the blood vessels in the vessel wall, which then occurs increased fat and cholesterol stored becomes. These deposits (plaques) get bigger and bigger and the blood vessels get narrower, so that the blood can no longer flow properly. Since too little blood reaches the organs over time, this can have serious consequences.


A metabolic syndrome becomes in one at best Medical check-up recognized by the doctor and not if consequences such as a heart attack or stroke have already occurred. In particular, previous illnesses and illnesses in the family serve as an indication of the presence of a metabolic syndrome. This will be a special one focus on Diseases like Diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, stroke and Heart attack placed.
Then is a physical examination very important for diagnosis. Here the Blood pressure measured that Waist circumference and the Weight certainly.
With the help of a Blood test can they Blood lipid levels and the Cholesterol levels to be determined. Also the Liver values are being researched. Also a so-called Glucose tolerance test to determine fasting blood sugar is carried out. For this, the patient has to drink a certain amount of sugar solution. The blood sugar is measured before and after.

Hints are for the presence of metabolic syndrome Obesity (BMI greater than 25), a increased waist size (Men over 104 cm, women over 88 cm), increased blood sugar level (Fasting blood sugar over 100 milligrams per deciliter), increased blood lipids (Fasted triglycerides over 150 milligrams per deciliter and HDL cholesterol below 50 milligrams per deciliter) and increased blood pressure (over 130/85 mmHg). If you have a metabolic syndrome, you should go through EKG and Ultrasound examinations the effects on the heart and other organs are controlled.


As the symptoms of metabolic syndrome Usually no pain at first or cause other discomfort, they stay undetected for a long time.
Noticeable is the excess weight which is part of the syndrome and by one Body mass index (BMI) of over 25 is shown.
In patients with the metabolic syndrome, the fat is mainly on the stomach, which is why it also sets in Waist circumference of over 88 cm for women and over 104 cm for men one of the symptoms is.
In addition, is arterial high blood pressure over 130/85 mmHg an indication of the presence of the metabolic syndrome, whereby a headache, Dizziness or Epistaxis can arise.
The disturbed lipid metabolism can be caused by a Blood test be detected. To do this, the fasting values ​​for triglycerides must be above 150 milligrams per deciliter and those for HDL cholesterol below 50 milligrams per deciliter.
The Insulin resistance, which is also part of the metabolic syndrome, can be detected by determining the fasting blood sugar. This must be over 100 milligrams per deciliter to indicate insulin resistance.

Risk factors

The metabolic syndrome, also called prosperity syndrome, describes a combination of several risk factors, which one Trunked obesity (obesity), one Lipid metabolism disorder, high blood pressure and the Type 2 diabetes mellitus to include. When it comes to development, there is also one special thing high calorie diet also a pronounced lack of exercise plays a crucial role and is also the main target of therapy.
Obesity can be measured by several parameters such as waist circumference or body mass index (BMI) objectify. The waist size at Men is higher in trunk-dominated obesity 94 cm, at Women over 80 cm. The body mass index is calculated from the quotient of weight in kilograms and height in meters squared (kg / m²). Obesity is from a value of 30 Are defined.

A lipid metabolism disorder can on the one hand be genetic, on the other hand it is usually acquired as part of a metabolic syndrome. Laboratory values ​​like you help to determine this Triglycerides or that HDL. These are increased with a continuously high-fat diet and can lead to calcification of the blood vessels.
This in turn favors you high blood pressure, as the blood vessels lose their elasticity and the heart now has to use more force and pressure to supply the body with blood. Values ​​that prove this are blood pressures systolic over 150 mmHg, diastolic over 90 mmHg.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is favored by a diet that is too high in calories and sugar, but genetic causes also play an important role here. Children with type 2 diabetes have a 50 percent chance of developing diabetes in their lifetime.


The goal of treating a metabolic syndrome is to preventthat serious incidentssuch as a stroke or heart attack.

First is one change of lifestyle. Lots of exercise and a healthy, balanced, low fat diet are the most important requirement. To do this there is special trainingthat patients can participate in. Here you will learn how to eat properly. These include, among other things, how to cook dishes that serve to reduce weight and reduce salt intake. Both lead to Lowering high blood pressure. Also Exercise therapy is offered at these training courses. Most important is regular endurance trainingto burn fat and build muscle that burn energy.

If a metabolic disorder, for example diabetes, or diseases of the cardiovascular system is known beforehand, medication is usually required in addition to lifestyle changes. On the one hand, diabetes mellitus or insulin resistance can be treated with medication, but high blood pressure and increased blood lipid levels can also be reduced with certain drugs.

Metabolic Syndrome Cure

The metabolic syndrome can only be cured by taking measures Change of lifestyle take place and depends crucially on how advanced the individual components are. Basically it can be said that a Calorie restriction respectively Diet change such as regular endurance training in the form of Walking, to jog or To go biking, shows an improvement in symptoms such as high blood pressure after just a few weeks. In addition, through weight loss and exercise, the tissue becomes more sensitive to insulin again, so that the long-term effects of diabetes mellitus can also be avoided.

Consequences of a metabolic syndrome

Since around 25% of the German population now have the metabolic syndrome, it stops growing problem The population is increasing endangered, Having a heart attack or stroke at a young age. There are also people with the metabolic syndrome not that powerfulhow healthy people.
A metabolic syndrome can develop develop type 2 diabetes mellitus over time.

Every single factor that is part of metabolic syndrome provides one Risk factor for atherosclerosis This is a calcification of the arterial blood vessels that leads to circulatory disorders. This can result in a heart attack and stroke, which in the worst case can be fatal. Also the Kidney can be damaged and possibly a lifetime Dialysis requirement condition.

All of these consequences only occur when around 70% of the blood vessels are constricted. It is therefore important to recognize any early signs and to act. A healthy lifestyle with plenty of exercise and eating is the best foundation for avoiding metabolic syndrome.

Diabetes mellitus in a metabolic syndrome

Diabetes mellitus often occurs together with or is part of the metabolic syndrome. Often there is one Insulin resistance the Precursor of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In type 2 diabetes mellitus is usually there is enough insulin, the However, cells are resistant to it. In the body, insulin is responsible for the fact that the sugar from food is absorbed and metabolized in fat and muscle cells and in many other cells.However, when the cells no longer respond to insulin, the sugar builds up in the blood vessels and over time builds up in their walls. This leads to the formation of so-called plaques, which lead to the vessels becoming ever narrower and resulting in circulatory disorders.

Diabetes mellitus should medicated so that the metabolism in the body comes back into balance and leads to an improved functionality of the organs. This also reduces the risk of secondary diseases.

Would you like to learn more about diabetes mellitus? Please read: Diabetes mellitus

Gout in a metabolic syndrome

In addition to a pronounced lack of exercise, diet plays a central role in the metabolic syndrome. In the context of overeating, there is also often an increased consumption of purine-rich food. Purines are chemical compounds in the body that play an essential role in cell reproduction, cell communication and energy generation. They can be produced and broken down by the body itself.
Your breakdown product is that uric acidwhich is excreted in the urine. If the supply of purine-rich food is increased, as is the case with overeating as part of the metabolic syndrome, more metabolic end products such as uric acid are produced. As part of the gout then it comes to painful deposition of uric acid salts in the joints. Purine-rich foods are among others alcohol, flesh, asparagus, fish or Offal like liver or kidney.

Overweight in a metabolic syndrome

The two pillars of the metabolic syndrome are one very high calorie overeating and a pronounced lack of exercise. Both causes favor one Obesitywhich, in addition to other factors such as increased blood lipids, high blood pressure, and increased blood sugar, among the major problems of metabolic syndrome.
The definition speaks of more central, trunk-borne obesity and names values ​​of the Waist circumference For Men from 94 cm, For Women from 80 cm.

Obesity, in the form of adipose tissue, changes that Insulin metabolism in the body and ensures a decreased insulin sensitivity of the tissue, which favors the occurrence of diabetes mellitus. If obesity is reduced as part of a metabolic syndrome through diet changes and persistent physical exercise, it comes to after a few weeks increased insulin sensitivity of the tissue, as well as for Lowering high blood pressure.

Nutrition in Metabolic Syndrome

In addition to a lack of exercise, diet plays a decisive role in the development of the metabolic syndrome. With those affected there is often one Overeating in the form of high-calorie food, which is also often too generous. In general, it can be said that there is a diet above the daily requirement. Every person has, depending on their constitution, an energy requirement to maintain all physical functions. In addition, energy is required depending on the physical strain.
If the supply of energy in the form of food is above the requirement, the person gains weight; if the energy absorbed is below the required requirement, the person decreases in weight, since physical reserves are now used up. In the treatment of the affluence syndrome, in addition to the recommendation of regular physical activity, is one Diet change indispensable. Recommendations like this play a role here Avoid heavily sweetened drinks, how Icetea, cola or sweetened juices, also the Avoid fatty and sweet foods.

Often one speaks in this context of "hidden fats". These are found in foods that do not initially appear to be particularly high in fat, such as nuts, croissants or chocolate bar. When changing your diet, nutritional advice can be very helpful. Here the individual, physical need is determined and the food is adapted to this.

Diet for Metabolic Syndrome

Dieting is an important part of treating metabolic syndrome. Only if the weight is reduced through proper nutrition and sufficient exercise can blood pressure and blood lipids be lowered and the quality of life improved. In addition, this reduces the risk of suffering a heart attack or stroke in the further course.

Fat consumption should be kept as low as possible. Mainly unsaturated fatty acids should be consumed. Food with saturated fatty acids, such as sausage or other meat, should be avoided if possible or only eaten in small quantities. Ready meals should also not be consumed if possible. Having a sufficient amount of fiber is very important for a balanced diet. These are mainly found in whole grain products, fruits and vegetables.

You should drink enough, i.e. at least 1.5 to 2 liters a day. However, this only applies to water. Many forget how many calories there are in alcoholic beverages. This should therefore be avoided.

Tips for a balanced diet with diabetes mellitus can be found here: Diet recommendations for diabetics