Diet for urinary stones / kidney stones


When creating Urinary stones / Kidney stones a variety of factors play a role.

Individual eating habits and the intake of certain food components have a major influence on the development of abnormal urine levels.
These can be improved through targeted nutritional therapy. A detailed nutritional history (nutritional protocols over several days) and a coordinated, stone-type-specific Nutritional therapy can counteract the formation of urinary stones and prevent relapses.

The most common types of stone are Calcium oxalate- and Uric acid stones. They make up about 80% of all stone types and their formation can be influenced with nutritional therapy.

Here you can find general information on the topic nutrition

Drinking volume

Requirement for the formation of Urinary stones/Kidney stones is the increased concentration of a certain substance (for example Calcium and Oxalate) and the insufficient dilution of the urine. Increasing the fluid intake and thus also the urine volume is the primary measure to prevent the formation of stones.
Insufficient drinking volume or excessive sweat loss due to intensive Sports, Sauna, sunbathing, etc. can cause a risky low and concentrated amount of urine. A regular and excessive consumption of alcohol carries an increased risk of developing urinary stones. First, alcohol has a diuretic effect, followed by a phase in which only little urine is produced and the risk of certain substances accumulating increases.
In addition, alcohol consumption increases in the body Lactate which is responsible for an increased excretion of acids via the kidneys and causes the urinary pH to rise. Because of these effects, alcohol (including beer) is not suitable for preventing urinary stone formation.


An increased intake of animal protein (Meat, sausage, fish, eggs) increases the risk of urinary stones / Kidney stones to get sick.
root cause for it is a lower one that develops with this diet PH value of urine. Calcium and citrate are increasingly observed in the urine. Citrate promotes the formation of calcium-containing stones.


Excessive consumption of easily digestible Carbohydrates, such as sugar and white flour leads to increased Calcium excretion in the urine and can promote the formation of urinary stones.

Oxalic acid

As a risk factor for the formation of calcium oxalate stones comes the Oxalic acid more important than calcium. Even small changes in the oxalic acid concentration can lead to stone formation. Consumption of foods containing oxalic acid (for example rhubarb, Spinach, beetroot) should therefore be severely restricted.


The supply of the mineral calcium (primarily from dairy products, mineral water) is also for the stone patient at a height of 800-1000 mg daily necessary. However, the supply should not exceed the requirement because otherwise the risk of stone formation increases.


An adequate intake of fiber can reduce the amount of calcium excreted in the urine. This fiber intake should correspond to the usual recommendations for intake.
Excessive intake, for example in the form of bran is not displayed. It can lead to increased formation of Oxalic acid and increased Oxalic acid concentrations result in urine.


After increased intake of sodium In the form of table salt, increased calcium excretion with the urine was observed.


This mineral increases the willingness to form calcium oxalate stones. The intake of fiber from vegetables and fruits can obviously reduce the usability of magnesium. An excessive intake of magnesium is not displayed.


An excessive intake of purine-rich foods leads to an increased excretion of uric acid. This increases the risk of stone formation.

Practical nutritional therapy

Drinking recommendations

The primary goal of avoiding the formation of urinary stones / kidney stones is to ensure sufficient urine. This dilutes the urine and prevents critical concentrations of certain substances. To what is desired Urine volume of 2.5 l in 24 hours must reach the daily drinking amount 2.5 to 3 l be.
Energy-poor and urinary alkalizing (PH value increasing) Give preference to drinks.
Bicarbonate rich Mineral waters contain more than 1500mg bicarbonate and increase the PH value of the urine. In addition, diluted citrus juices are very suitable for the therapy of uric acid stones and calcium oxalate stones.
Neutral drinks are Mineral waters low in minerals (little calcium), Tap water, fruit, herbal, and kidney and bladder teas.
Coffee, black tea and mint tea are not very suitable drinks. They should only be drunk in small quantities. It should also be mentioned here that milk cannot be included in the daily fluid balance. Milk is not a drink but a food and is one of the dairy products in the daily menu. Alcoholic drinks and sugary lemonades and cola drinks are unsuitable.

Diet recommendations

Basically, the guidelines for a balanced mixed diet of the German Society for Nutrition apply to stone patients (Food pyramid) as they are recommended for the healthy. However, there are some additional points that patients with uric acid or calcium oxalate stones must pay attention to:

  • The Protein intake should 0.8 g per kg of body weight do not exceed. The intake of animal protein from meat and sausage is to be restricted. A maximum of 150 g of meat or sausage products are permitted daily.
  • The Calcium intake should 800-1000 mg per day be. Approximately 500 mg comes from other food and 500 mg should be taken in the form of milk and milk products. For example, 500 mg calcium are contained in: 125 g yoghurt, 150 ml milk and 30 g brie cheese.
  • Purine-rich foods should be avoided or restricted. These are mainly offal, sardines, herrings, mackerel, mussels, as well as the skin of fish and poultry.
  • Table salt is said to be very economical can be used. Avoid salting in the kitchen. Ready meals, smoked and cured products, snack products (chips and co.) Contain high amounts of table salt and should be avoided as far as possible.
  • High fiber foods how Whole grain products, vegetables and fruit should prefers to be eaten.
  • Oxalic acid-rich foods should be avoided and should never be consumed in large quantities. They are: beetroot, rhubarb, spinach, Swiss chard, nuts, cocoa powder, peppermint leaves, black tea leaves and soluble coffee powder.


  1. Drink 2.5 to 3 liters per day. Prefers mineral waters rich in bicarbonate and low in calcium and diluted citrus juices. Avoid drinks containing alcohol.
  2. Keep the protein intake rather low. 0.8 g protein per kg body weight is sufficient. Limit the supply of meat and sausage.
  3. The calcium intake should not exceed 800 to 1000 mg daily. 500 mg come from milk and milk products and 500 mg from the rest of the diet
  4. Eliminate foods rich in oxalic acid from the menu.
  5. While cooking not to salt and avoid extremely salty foods.
  6. Prefer foods rich in fiber.