Abandonment of insulin
What is insulin anyway?
Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas (Pancreas) is produced and released into the blood. It is mainly needed by liver, muscle and fat cells in order to be able to absorb glucose, i.e. sugar, from the blood, whereby it is also responsible for lowering blood sugar levels. It is used to provide energy in the form of sugar and to build up energy stores within the cells. In addition, it is one of the most important growth hormones in the human body, which means that it promotes the development and maturation of cells and therefore organs.
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Task of insulin in the metabolism
To fully understand the role of the hormone insulin, it is important to understand the general principle behind it human metabolism to know.
The metabolism, also called metabolism, represents a system in equilibrium. If we need energy, it takes care of it Release of hormonesthat make us hungry. We eat and provide our body with the building blocks it needs to function properly. After eating, he takes care of that Distribution and utilization of the building blocks. If we have eaten too much, he is responsible for ensuring that nothing is lost and that Food components in the form of sugar stores and fat are saved for later. He is also responsible for breaking them down into reusable energy modules.
All of these reactions are mediated by hormones such as insulin and glucagon, the antagonist of insulin. insulin plays as a constructive, so-called anabolic hormone a big role in sugar metabolism. The term “building up” refers to our body's energy stores, not to the glucose itself. The glucose is broken down in order to build up the energy stores. As soon as we eat food or even think about food, insulin production is boosted. How exactly is not yet certain. The end point is definitely the pancreas, the pancreas.
The The pancreas is the organ that makes insulin produced and released so that it can do its job throughout the body. The blood sugar level rises, i.e. the concentration of sugar in the blood, binds insulin to specific receptors on different cells in the body, which in turn leads to the incorporation of receptors to which the sugar (glucose) can bind. Glucose can by binding to its receptor taken into the cell and there in Metabolic pathways are introduced that provide energy. If enough energy is available for the moment, the glucose can also be saved for later. This is what she becomes stored in the form of glycogen or fat. In addition to this quick, immediate effect, insulin has another one second mode of actionthat takes a little more time. After insulin has bound to the cell via its specific insulin receptor, it triggers various reaction chains within the cell, which the Affect production of enzymes. In this way, enzymes are produced that break down the sugar once it is in the cell, and enzymes that would rebuild the sugar are inhibited. Thus, insulin not only makes the sugar available to the cell, but also all the enzymes that the cell needs to process the sugar.
Unlike insulin, which lowers blood sugar levels, the hormone glucagon increases the amount of sugar in the blood. It's the direct one Antagonist to insulin. So glucagon is a degrading, catabolic hormone that Sugar released from energy stores like the liver. It also activates some enzymes that cause Fat loss contribute. Glucagon will too produced in the pancreas, released into the blood and then bound to cells by receptors. As a result of the bond, the energy stores within the cells, especially in fat and liver cells, are broken down. So if we have not eaten for a while, for example at night, and have not directly supplied our body with enough energy, glucagon is released. Sugar metabolism enzymes that are stimulated by insulin are inhibited by glucagon and vice versa. So you are hiring balance here, which is very finely tuned. It protects us from having too little or too much sugar in the blood and is a good example of the balance that must be constantly maintained in order for our bodies to function properly.
Influence on the level of sugar in the blood
Sugar is a Main supplier of energy in the human body. The metabolism therefore ensures that a certain amount of it is always freely available in the blood so that it is quickly available when it is needed. If this were not the case, each time cells need sugar, a memory would first have to be broken down, the sugar would have to be absorbed into the blood and then again into the cells that need it. It just takes too long. The sugar concentration should be sober, so the blood sugar level, below 100 mg per deciliter, i.e. less than 1000 mg per liter. After a meal, however, this value increases many times over. To get the free sugar out of the blood, insulin is required, which, as described above, lowers the blood sugar level again by allowing the cells to absorb sugar. Therefore, in stressful situations such as class work or exercise, it can help to eat pure sugar in the form of glucose. It does not have to be crushed in the intestine, but can absorbed into the blood very quickly and thus increase the amount of sugar that is freely available directly.
What happens if I am insulin resistant?
Has insulin no more effect on cells and is through it unable to lower blood sugar levels, one speaks of an insulin resistance. It can have various causes that are still largely unknown. Since insulin resistance is the Basis for type 2 diabetes mellitus is, however, intensive research is being carried out in this area.
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What is certain is type 2 diabetes associated with severe obesity and is certainly also genetically favored. It is believed that either the Receptors no longer respond properly to insulin binding or else that this no longer produced in sufficient numbers become. It is also possible that the body makes antibodies against insulin, which it traps in the blood before it can bind to cells and work. However, the consequence is always the same: The cells lack insulin as a signaling substanceto build receptors for sugar. As a result, the cells lack the important energy substance and the concentration of sugar in the blood increases dangerously. The excess sugar then binds to substances such as proteins and fats that are in the blood. They collect in the blood, attach to the walls of the vessels and prevent a smooth flow of blood. It comes to Vascular injuries and long-term damage throughout the body, among other things Kidney and eye diseases, such as Damage to nerve cells.
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