Lung disease

Synonyms in a broader sense

Lungs, alveoli, bronchi

Medical: Pulmo

English: breathing organ, lungs

Figure lungs

Figure respiratory system with the right and left lungs from the front
  1. Right lung -
  2. Left lung -
    Pulmo sinister
  3. Nasal cavity - Cavitas nasi
  4. Oral cavity - Cavitas oris
  5. Throat - Pharynx
  6. Larynx - larynx
  7. Trachea (approx. 20 cm) - Trachea
  8. Bifurcation of the trachea -
    Bifurcatio tracheae
  9. Right main bronchus -
    Bronchus principalis dexter
  10. Left main bronchus -
    Bronchus principalis sinister
  11. Tip of the lung - Apex pulmonis
  12. Upper lobe - Superior lobe
  13. Inclined lung cleft -
    Fissura obliqua
  14. Lower lobe -
    Inferior lobe
  15. Lower edge of the lung -
    Margo inferior
  16. Middle lobe -
    Lobe medius
    (only on the right lung)
  17. Horizontal cleft lung
    (between the upper and middle lobes on the right) -
    Horizontal fissure

You can find an overview of all Dr-Gumpert images at: medical illustrations

Figure bronchiole: Plastic representation of the end branch with vascular network
  1. Bronchiole
    (cartilage-free smaller
    Bronchus) -
  2. Branch of the pulmonary artery -
    Pulmonary artery
  3. End bronchiole -
    Respiratory bronchiolus
  4. Alveolar duct -
    Alveolar duct
  5. Alveoli sheath -
    Interalveolar septum
  6. Elastic fiber basket
    of the alveoli -
    Fibrae elasticae
  7. Pulmonary capillary network -
    Rete capillare
  8. Branch of a pulmonary vein -
    Pulmonary vein

You can find an overview of all Dr-Gumpert images at: medical illustrations

Overview of lung diseases

Lung disease

COPD / smoking

By Smoke the following changes occur in the windpipe and lung diseases:

  1. The effectiveness of the hairline (ciliate) and thus its cleaning function decreases
  2. Also, these irritations lead to a Thickening of the cellswhich reduces the diameter of the airways (obstruction)
  3. There is a malfunction in the production of the slime

All three effects cause the cells of the respiratory tract to react more intensely to further irritation and the pathological effects on lung diseases become increasingly extreme. This lung disease is known as COPD (cchronicallyOconstructive pulmonale E.r disease (engl. desease). COPD is characterized by shortness of breath, chronic cough and sputum.


There are different forms of the Asthma (bronchial asthma). The most common form is allergic asthma. Here, an allergy-causing irritant (allergen) leads to a histamine (see above) mediated constriction of the pulmonary branches (bronchi).
It is characteristic that the inhaled air can no longer leave the lungs. A characteristic sign of the disease is shortness of breath.
Further information is also available under our topic: bronchial asthma

lung infection

The lung infection (pneumonia) is mostly caused by bacteria. Inflammatory infiltrates (immune cells and bacteria) lead to filling of the Alveoliwhich are then no longer available for gas exchange. Characteristic symptoms are fever, to cough, Shortness of breath. Further information is also available under our topic: lung infection

Lung cancer

Lung cancer is also mainly caused by Smoke causes and in most cases leads to death of the patient. There are no typical symptoms that are unique to lung cancer.
Further information is also available under our topic: Lung cancer