In addition to the toothbrush, toothpaste or toothpaste, English toothpaste or dentifrice, is an important part of oral hygiene. Contrary to popular belief that toothpaste only consists of whipped chalk, water and aroma, the composition of a toothpaste is much more extensive and places high demands on the developer with regard to its formulation.

Toothpaste plays an important role in the remineralization of tooth enamel after exposure to acids.
Read on under: How can you build up tooth enamel?


Toothpaste is available in several flavors and is an important part of dental care

Attempts have been made in ancient times to use substances similar to toothpaste for dental care. The reason was mainly bad Bad breath to avoid. There have always been carious teeth, of course, but nothing was known about the causes. That is why one was already using it back then essential oils such as mint in connection with other sometimes adventurous, but mostly herbal additives. One of these substances was wood ash. The Egyptians made a mixture of wine vinegar and pumice stone powder. The Romans even used urine. In the Middle Ages a mixture was used Chamomile flowers and cloves.

It was not until the beginning of the 20th century that a pharmacist in Dresden invented the first toothpaste in its present form. But he also used pumice stone powder as a cleaning body. As a result, the paste had too much abrasion.


The toothpaste supports the cleaning effect of the toothbrush through its cleaning body. It brings active ingredients into the oral cavity and makes oral hygiene more pleasant through foam-forming substances.
See also Dental care and professional teeth cleaning

Regular brushing of your teeth with toothpaste removes bacterial deposits and thus reduces the risk of tooth decay. You can find more about this at. How does tooth decay develop?

White teeth from toothpaste?

It is impossible to bleach your teeth with simple toothpaste. To whiten the teeth you need Hydrogen peroxide in at least six percent concentration. Even then, the effect is very little. It is not for nothing that dentists use up to forty percent hydrogen peroxide solutions for bleaching. The effect that the whitening toothpastes take advantage of is that the toothpastes are blue or even black and the teeth appear lighter in the mirror after spitting them out. This is only thanks to the difference between the dark color and the lighter teeth. Other toothpastes contain abrasive pellets that rub off deposits from tea or coffee. The advantage is that the darker deposits are removed. So the teeth are cleaner and whiter. But they will never be lighter than their natural color.

The disadvantage of these toothpastes is that the teeth tend to get more yellow and therefore darker over time. The enamel particles rub off minimally the enamel particles. At first the teeth appear white, but over time the yellow dentin underneath comes to light. That is why whitening toothpastes or blue and black tooth gels advertised as miracle cures should be treated with caution.

You can find more on this topic here:

  • Forms of whitening
  • Duration of whitening and results

Does toothpaste help against tartar?

There is no toothpaste that works as a cure for tartar. Tartar occurs because the plaque solidifies and mineralizes. This coating can only be removed by mechanical cleaning. Brushing your teeth and using the right technique are therefore essential. Whether or not the plaque develops tartar depends a lot on the patient. Some have very lime-rich saliva. Therefore it happens that some patients develop a lot of tartar, others none at all. Some ingredients can aid the brushing technique in removing plaque. For example zinc. It has an antibacterial effect and to a certain extent prevents these bacteria from depositing as a biofilm on the teeth. However, zinc only works as long as the plaque has not yet calcified or turned into tartar, because there are no living bacteria in tartar that can be killed by zinc. Tartar can only be properly removed by the dentist or with a stable instrument.

It is important that you pay attention to the fluorine content when choosing a toothpaste: some toothpastes promise to take action against tartar but do not contain fluoride, which strengthens and smooths the tooth enamel. With a smooth surface, less plaque and less tartar build up. The recipe for success is called "regular tooth brushing".

You can find more on this topic here:

  • Professional tooth cleaning
  • Scaler

Which toothpaste works best against bad breath?

The primary goal is to find out what is causing the bad breath. Because odors from the mouth do not come from problems in the mouth area alone. Rather, bad breath comes from diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.The toothpaste would drown out the bad breath for a moment, but the fresh breath wouldn't last long. Candida albicans, a yeast that settles on the mucous membrane, cannot be treated with toothpaste. If the cause of the bad breath can be found in the tooth or gums, it is advisable to use a special toothpaste that tackles the cause directly.

Salviagalen F is a toothpaste that contains sage, chamomile and clove, among others. These substances fight bacteria and thus reduce gingivitis and tooth decay. These two conditions are a common cause of bad breath. It helps against sensitive and inflamed gums Meridol toothpaste. Most notably "Meridol Halitosis"Or"Safe breath". Toothpastes also help that Chlorhexidine or Tea tree oil contain. It is also advisable to have a Ginger toothpaste to try out. On the one hand, ginger is antibacterial, which combats the cause of gingivitis, and on the other hand, ginger has its own long-lasting fragrance that can drown out bad breath.

Toothpaste against bleeding gums

In most cases, the cause of bleeding gums is inflammation of the gums. So the best method is to reduce inflammation. In the toothpaste "Salviagelen“There are many herbs like chamomile, sage, and clove that stop inflammation. There are also toothpastes that Tea tree oil or Chlorhexidine contain. The toothpaste "Dental med toothpaste myrrh“Contains the home remedy myrrhthat works against bleeding gums. However, the toothpaste did not score too well in several tests because it does not serve as a caries prophylaxis. Another helpful clue is that the RDA should not be too high. This value indicates the number of abrasive beads. The higher this value is, the more likely the gums will be roughened and begin to bleed.


Toothpastes contain a variety of different ingredients. Essentially there are cleaning agents, binders, humectants, foam-generating agents, sweetening substances, colorings, flavors, preservatives, water, and special active ingredients. Some pastes contain additional ingredients.

Cleaning body in the toothpaste

Cleaning bodies are insoluble inorganic substances that are contained in toothpastes in different concentrations and grain sizes. The percentage in a toothpaste is up to 60 percent.

Since the cleaning body of the toothpaste should support the cleaning effect of the toothbrush, but must not attack the tooth enamel and they are not perceived as sand in the oral cavity, the grain size of the particles of the toothpaste is chosen so that these conditions are met. The mean particle size is therefore 15 micrometers. The often mentioned whiting chalk is not used in toothpaste, but precipitated chalk. The difference is that whiting chalk has edges that are too sharp and the chalk that has been felled is rounded.
By selecting the appropriate cleaning material, a maximum of cleaning effect and a minimum of abrasion is achieved. Calcium carbonate or silica are most often used as a cleaning agent in toothpastes. There are also a number of other substances that can be used as cleaning agents in toothpastes.


The binders are supposed to give the toothpaste a smooth consistency by preventing the separation of liquids and solids. Among other things, alginates or methyl cellulose are used as binders.


A toothpaste should of course not dry out, so humectants are added to it. They guarantee that the paste always has the same consistency. Glycerine is used for this, but also sugar substitutes such as sorbitol or xylitol.

Foaming agent

Foam-producing additives are also called surfactants and are surface active. At very high concentrations, they can therefore also attack the oral mucosa. To prevent this, a maximum concentration of 2% has been set. At this concentration, foam concentrates are absolutely harmless. The surfactants loosen the plaque and make it easier to remove. They also penetrate the hard-to-reach spaces between the teeth and their foaming effect makes brushing your teeth more pleasant. The main foaming agent used is sodium lauryl sulfate, which is neutral in taste and other ingredients, or medicinal soap.


Of course, no sugar is used to sweeten the toothpaste, but saccharine or aspartate is added as a flavor correction.


Preservatives are used to achieve a long shelf life and to avoid bacterial infestation. Here, substances are used that are also used in the food industry.


Dyes are mainly used to produce multicolored toothpastes or to cover up colored additives. Titanium dioxide, which covers colored pigments and turns the paste white, is ideal for the latter. It also applies to dyes that they comply with food law.

Toothpaste containing fluoride

Nowadays most toothpastes are fortified with fluoride, but there are also many toothpaste manufacturers who add fluoride in particularly high concentrations to their creams.
For a long time, fluoride was considered THE miracle cure in the prevention of caries, but recently there have been increasing voices critical of the use of toothpaste containing fluoride.
Dentists actually assumed that the fluoride forms a relatively thick, stable layer around the tooth, thereby artificially hardening it. The particularly hard tooth surface then makes it difficult for the bacteria to form carious defects and thereby damage the tooth.
For this reason, the additional use of fluoride tablets is recommended, especially for children.

Find out more at: Toothpaste without fluoride

Whether and to what extent fluoride can help prevent the development of carious defects cannot therefore be conclusively stated. What is certain, however, is that, above all, regular, careful oral hygiene is the first means of choice for caries prevention.
The use of fluorides should not be neglected, nor should it be used excessively, because tooth decay or not, excessive fluoridation of the teeth can lead to unsightly deposits and white spots on the tooth surface.

Read more on the topic: Fluoridation of teeth

Toothpaste without fluoride

There are many people who do that fluoride in the toothpaste as dangerous. This is why there are many toothpastes that don't have any fluoride have as an ingredient. That named as toxic fluoride but is only harmful in quantities. Who too much as a child fluoride gets white spots on the teeth or it builds up in the bones. If the amount of the active ingredient is kept within limits, it is not dangerous. That is why there are limit values ​​for over-the-counter toothpastes. For adults, the toothpaste may only contain 1500 ppm. That corresponds to 1500 milligrams per kilogram. You should be careful with children, especially as some of them are also taking fluoride tablets. As soon as the first tooth has erupted, you should only brush with the fluoride toothpaste once a day, and twice a day from the age of two. However, this should only contain 500 ppm. The reason for this is that children are not yet able to spit out the toothpaste properly and therefore swallow it. Adults shouldn't swallow the toothpaste either. It stays that way fluoride only in the place where it is needed. And the risk of poisoning is minimized.

The German Society for Tooth, Oral and Maxillofacial Medicine is convinced that the local application of Fluorides in the area of ​​the teeth is an important measure against tooth decay. So studies indicate that people who do a lot fluoride eat, get less tooth decay. In residential areas where drinking water was fluoridated, people had fewer tooth decay than in other areas. If you still want to use a fluoride-free toothpaste, for example Bio-Repair, Weleda or Tea tree oil Toothpaste available.

More information can be found here:

  • Toothpaste without fluoride
  • Fluoridation of teeth

Toothpaste with chlorhexidine

The reason why using toothpaste Chlorhexidine was invented as an ingredient is that chlorhexidine loses its effect in connection with foaming agents. The mouthwash with Chlorhexidine after brushing your teeth with a foaming toothpaste, effectively nothing. You'd have to wait around two hours between sessions for that Chlorhexidine could develop its effect. Toothpastes the Chlorhexidine should therefore not contain a foaming agent such as Sodium lauryl sulfate contain. Alternatively, toothpastes without foam can be used, which enable the subsequent chlorhexidine therapy. Such a toothpaste is for example "parodontax". Toothpastes with a maximum of 0.2% are freely available Chlorhexidine. examples are Curasept, Paroex from GUM or Perio Aid.

The toothpaste should be used with Chlorhexidine not too often. Even in patients with inflammation of the gums, it is sufficient to use this toothpaste once a day. It is much more important to use the right brushing technique and brush your teeth at least twice a day. Because Chlorhexidine Excessive use can cause irritation of the oral mucosa. Pregnant women should discuss its use with their family dentist.

Read the main article on the subject here:

  • Toothpaste with chlorhexidine

Toothpaste with coconut oil

Coconut oil is considered a good home remedy in dentistry. It is often related to gingivitis. The advantage of coconut oil is that it has a great taste. It can also be easily processed into toothpaste. Oil pulling has long been a good healing method for killing bacteria in the oral cavity. The oil goes into connection with the fatty parts of the bacterial wall. The bacteria are bound to the oil and either transported away by spitting the oil out again or destroyed by dissolving the bacterial wall.

Another special feature of coconut oil is that it not only kills existing bacteria, but also inhibits the growth of other bacteria. The focus is on bacteria that cause gingivitis or tooth decay. There are some studies that prove that coconut oil has a clear lead in fighting the pathogens compared to other oils tested. It even helps go candida albicans. This is a yeast that spreads to the skin and mucous membrane.

In addition, coconut oil is a natural product and therefore shows little or no side effects. One of the reasons for this is that the oil has a pH value of 8. After eating, the pH value drops to acidity, which encourages bacteria to destroy the enamel. However, if the oral environment is neutralized as quickly as possible, the enamel is not demineralized.

Toothpaste with activated charcoal

One effect of activated charcoal is that it binds toxins, i.e. toxins, and excretes them in the stool. Any toxins that come from the food and are still in the mouth are thus transported away. If toxins from food have already landed in the stomach, they can no longer be bound by the toothpaste, as the toothpaste should be spit out and therefore only works in the mouth area.

The activated charcoal toothpaste promises to make teeth whiter. This also works to a certain extent. However, the charcoal cannot bleach the enamel. The charcoal can only remove any dirt particles and discoloration, as certain emery and abrasive particles rub off the discoloration. The effect that the black toothpaste takes advantage of is the contrast. If one observes the teeth, which have been stained black due to the application, in the mirror, they are all the whiter after spitting out; especially because there may still be residues of the paint on the lip and tongue.

The substance contained in the toothpaste Titanium dioxide settles in small particles like a film on the tooth surface and makes the teeth appear brighter. With the next sip of water or food, however, this film is removed so that the white teeth are the same color as before. It has not yet been scientifically clarified whether the coal still contains dangerous hydrocarbons that are harmful to the body.

The main article on the subject can be found here:

  • Toothpaste with activated charcoal

Toothpaste with vitamin B12

The vitamin cannot be seen as a classic dietary supplement in the form of toothpaste. The toothpaste is spat out again after brushing your teeth. This prevents it from entering the gastrointestinal tract, where it would only be absorbed in the small intestine.

However, some substances are already absorbed into the body through the oral mucosa. Thus, people whose absorption in the gastrointestinal area is disturbed by diseases can still get the vitamin. However, since the amount is very small, you will not reach the blood level as with a classic dietary supplement in the form of tablets.

Overall, it can be said that toothpaste with vitamin B12 is not harmful and it is not harmful to test it if there is a deficiency. However, it is important to ensure that the toothpaste still contains fluorides, which protect the enamel from tooth decay.

Special active ingredients

Here fluorides come first. Every toothpaste should definitely contain fluoride. By incorporating them into the enamel, they make it more resistant to acid attacks and thus prevent tooth decay. In conjunction with the calcium from the saliva, they also promote remineralization. Mainly the inorganic salts sodium fluoride or sodium monofluorophosphate and the organic compound amine fluoride are used. Tin fluoride has proven itself in America.

Mainly anti-inflammatory agents are used to care for the gums. These are allantoin, carbamide or extracts from chamomile, sage or rosemary. Vitamin A is also used as a skin-effective agent in toothpastes. Toothpastes containing salt are said to tighten the gums through the effect of osmosis. The taste takes getting used to and they don't foam either.

To reduce plaque and tartar, antibacterial substances such as chlorhexidine digluconate, hexiditine or triclosan are used, and pyrophosphates are added to toothpastes to inhibit the formation of tartar

In toothpastes for the treatment and prevention of sensitive tooth necks, strontium chloride, potassium nitrate or potassium chloride are added to the toothpastes.


Flavors are important for toothpaste to be accepted. In addition, they also have a slight antibacterial effect. Aromatic oils such as peppermint oil, wintergreen oil and many other flavors are preferred, with the peppermint flavor being preferred by far. Cinnamon oil is not used in Germany as it can cause allergies. In America, however, it is very popular.

Tooth powder

In addition to toothpaste in the smooth paste form, there is also tooth powder in granulate form. The composition of these granulates differs significantly from the pastes. Applying it to the toothbrush is not that easy because some of the granules go wrong.

Children's toothpastes

Toothpastes for adults are too hot for children. They prefer pastes that are sweet. Of course, the sweetness is not achieved with sugar, which is why all children's toothpastes are sugar-free. The sweetness is achieved with sugar substitutes or sugar substitutes. Since children often receive fluoride prophylaxis, the fluoride concentration in children's toothpastes is reduced.

Toothpaste packaging

Tubes are used almost exclusively as toothpaste containers. They used to be made of pewter and became quite unsightly after use. Today we use so-called laminate tubes, which consist of two plastic layers with a metal layer in between. These tubes have the advantage that they can always be put back after use and - thanks to their large screw cap - can be stored in an upright position. A two-chamber system is used for toothpastes with different colored strips.

In addition to the tubes, there are also toothpaste dispensers. With these somewhat more complex containers, the toothpaste is released by pressing a small lever. All toothpaste packaging must contain a list of the ingredients.


Toothpastes are used in conjunction with the toothbrush to clean the teeth. At the same time, they bring active ingredients to the oral cavity to prevent tooth decay and to care for the gums.The rule of thumb is that you should brush your teeth 3 times a day. The cleaning process should take 3 minutes, but this is only observed in very few cases.

Can you make toothpaste yourself?

There are many ways to make toothpaste yourself. Especially because many customers believe that industrial production will put plastic in toothpaste. There are also many additives in the content. However, this fact is not very serious, since the toothpaste is spat out after brushing your teeth and the mouth is rinsed out with water. Spitting out is not yet a matter of course for children.

The ingredients for a homemade toothpaste can be freely selected depending on the desired effect: serves as a basis, for example Coconut oil. The oil binds bacteria and is effective against gingivitis and tooth decay. The myth that the oil whiten teeth is not true. It also contains homemade toothpaste Baking sodato bind pollutants. The advantage of baking soda is that it has a pH above the neutral range. The acidic oral environment after eating is thus antagonized and the neutral area is preserved. To make the toothpaste sweeter, one should take it Stevia rather on XylitolRecourse to a birch tucker is sweet, but is not cariogenic. It cannot be used by the bacteria. On the contrary: it absorbs the bacteria that perish as a result. To make the toothpaste even tastier, you should like oils peppermint oil or Fennel oil To fall back on. The oil itself is partly antibacterial. For the remineralization of the enamel, the body needs it in place fluorine, Calcium and phosphorus. These minerals are not contained in a homemade toothpaste or in very little concentration. The risk of tooth decay increases. That is why intensive research is being carried out into which ingredients a conventional toothpaste should contain.

Toothpaste and pimples / blackheads

Blackheads are closed sebum glands that cannot be influenced by the use of toothpaste.
Pimples are usually inflammations of these sebum glands (blackheads)
The recommendation which have a positive effect on pimples and blackheads through toothpaste so is nonsense.

Toothpaste for Herpes?

Toothpastes contain some substances that are more likely to irritate the wound. Herpes is a virus and due to the fact that toothpaste is more of an antibacterial agent, the ingredients don't do much. One advantage of some toothpastes is that they contain zinc. Zinc dries out the herpes from the inside. Toothpastes containing zinc are labeled as such. They should also only be applied to adults.

Simple toothpaste should also have the effect of drying out. However, the toothpaste is applied to the outside of the skin of the lips, which means that the herpes remains moist inside. However, it is at least not additionally moistened by saliva or drinks from the outside. In addition, the pores are closed by the dried toothpaste and thus the spread of the virus and the spread of the herpes are prevented. You have to be careful not to remove the dry toothpaste prematurely, otherwise it will tear the skin and the wound healing will be delayed. The best way to dissolve the toothpaste is with water.

Another advantage of toothpaste is that the skin is protected from the outside. The pain eases a little because, for example, the skin is not stretched as much when you eat. Toothpastes containing zinc are some, for example Aronal toothpastes or that of Sensodyne.

Read more about this topic here:

  • Home remedies for herpes
  • Cold sore creams

Can I take toothpaste in my hand luggage?

Liquids, including toothpaste, are allowed up to 100 ml in hand luggage. A normal tube of toothpaste is around 75 ml. You could even take a large tube with you. But there are also smaller tubes of toothpaste, extra travel toothpaste. These have a content of 12-25 ml. Trial toothpastes also have a smaller amount of content. It is advisable to take the smallest possible tube with you on a short flight. Then there is still space for more liquids.

It is important to note that large toothpaste tubes are always considered 75 ml, even if they are no longer completely full.


Toothpastes are used together with toothbrushes to clean the teeth. Instead, they contain more or less abrasive cleaning particles. They also contain important substances to prevent tooth decay and keep the gums healthy. Many different substances can be combined in their composition. The main ingredients are the Fluoride.