Cysts on the ovary


Cyst ovary

The diagnosis of an ovarian cyst is a headache for many women. If the word tumor is also mentioned in the same sentence, many women are deprived of sleep. According to various sources, an ovarian cyst is diagnosed by a gynecologist in every 8th woman in her life.
It is important to know that in over 90% of the cases it is a completely normal development of the ovaries, but this should still be checked regularly until it usually resolves spontaneously. With regular checks, there is no need to panic.

An ovary that appears enlarged on ultrasound does not always have to be a cyst or a tumor; there may also be ovarian swelling. Read on under: Swollen ovaries

Causes and origins

A cyst is a space filled with liquid. This liquid can from thin secretion up to tough, viscous mucus be any type of body fluid. It is mentioned in the same breath as tumors because a cyst is a Subspecies of tumors is. Contrary to popular association with malignant cancers by definition, a tumor is initially only one swelling. This can be of any nature. If Inflammation, Water retention, Cysts or just Cancers, they all make swellings, so a tumor. It follows that there is not always a malignant disease behind the diagnosis of a tumor. So a cyst is not a bad thing and just needs to be monitored to prevent it Complications to recognize early on, which then in rare cases require treatment. Cysts arise on many parts of the body and in the case of Ovarian cyst just to the Ovaries the woman. These are located to the right and left of the uterus and are through the Fallopian tubes loosely connected to her. Due to the spatial proximity, they can be easily combined with the Ultrasonic through the Scabbard or the Abdominal wall judge.

The cysts often arise from hormonal causes. Hormones are the signal transmitters of our body and are for example in the brain released and lead to various reactions in the body. For women, ours lead Sex hormones every month for Maturing one Egg cell in the ovaries and to the Menstrual period from the lining of the uterus.

The main part of the Ovarian cysts arises in this hormonal structure. These cysts are known as functional cysts and they are mostly harmless. They arise mainly in times of hormonal change with the woman, i.e. during the puberty or in the Menopause.

Here, too, there are different types, which are not uncommon up to 10 cm can grow big. With young women, that arises Ovarian cyst mostly from the Follicles (follicle), in which the egg cell in the ovary matures to a size of 2.5 cm. If this is ripe, it comes to ovulation and the egg cell jumps out of the ovary and then wanders the Fallopian tubes along direction uterus. This happens once a month from puberty to menopause. However, ovulation cannot take place properly the follicle grows with the egg cell and on and on produces liquid and it creates an ovarian cyst, in this case Follicular cyst called.

If ovulation takes place normally, the so-called follicle develops Corpus luteum (Corpus luteum) who then broken down in the ovary becomes. If this breakdown does not take place correctly, however, it can occur in the corpus luteum Bleeding come and the Luteal cyst out. From the corpus luteum can during a Infertility therapy instead of corpus luteum cysts, so-called Lutein cysts arise as a side effect of the therapy.

In addition to problems with female sex hormones, many women also have it too many male sex hormones. This excess grows in an ovary too many follicles approach, but not all of them through the Entry in the Fallopian tubes and often many ovarian cysts form here. Through the lots of cysts (Greek: poly = a lot) is also called this clinical picture Polycystic ovaries (PCO).

Please also read our page Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.

Other less common causes are one Endometriosis, one Thyroid disease or a problem of Adrenal cortexwhich also produces sex hormones.

The Endometriosis (Endometrium = lining of the uterus) leads to Uterine lining in other parts of the abdominal cavitye.g. on the bladder wall or on the intestines. Like the lining of the uterus, this lining also changes hormone dependent and starts like that Menstrual period to bleed once a month. If the blood collects in the tissue instead of flowing away, one is created Endometriosis cystwhich, due to the dark color of the blood, are also called "Chocolate cyst" referred to as.

Please also read our page about Endometriosis.

The second type besides the functional cysts are the Cysts due to abnormal development of germ cells in ovarian tissue. you are not hormone dependent and develop especially in girls and young women. This mostly benign tumors can degenerate into a malignant tumor in 1-2% of cases around the age of 40. Therefore, they should be checked regularly once they have been found.


The signs that you have developed a cyst are very diverse. They depend on the size and the place of education Ovary, nor from various factors such as the Blood circulation from. In general, the larger the cyst, the more likely it is to cause symptoms. Large cysts can then be treated by the gynecologist physical exam feel in the vagina. Most of the time, however, the cysts become during one Ultrasound examination as Incidental finding recognized and make no complaints to the woman concerned.

Only from a height of approx. 5 cm do patients report complaints in the form of a Feeling of pressure, dull stomach pain or Back pain on. Larger ovarian cysts can be severe stomach pain cause when they displace other internal organs. It then comes to pain Sexual intercourse or also at bowel movement and a feeling of fullness when pressure is applied to the Digestive system.


In 10% of the cases it can be Burst smaller Cysts come. This does not usually lead to complications. Mostly it is harmless and only gets through in a few cases stomach pain noticeable. But not every cyst bursts. Small cysts can also be broken down by the body itself and seem to disappear without a trace. However, a cyst that will burst Blood vessel of the ovary connected, can life-threatening bleeding arise in the abdomen. In these very rare cases there is one immediate surgery necessary and possibly life-saving. Are pointing to it sudden, strong pain in the lower part of the abdomen. That is why the close inspection is particularly important Record size changes early to be able to.

Ovarian cysts can also be attached to the Surface of the ovary arise. This can twist and run in it Blood vessels can be tied. These also supply the Ovary itself can do this to Death of the ovary to lead. Can tear it off here too life-threatening bleeding arise that have to be breastfed immediately. After untwisting the Ovarian cyst it must then be awaited whether the undersupplied ovary recovers, otherwise it must also be removed.

In very rare cases, a cyst can be on the bottom of one Ovarian cancer, one malignant cancerous growth, arise. Especially in older women after menopause this risk should not be underestimated and the Controls of the ovarian cyst be taken very strictly. The reason for this is simply that the likelihood of hormonal cysts after the Hormonal changes during menopause is simply very small and the cyst is more likely to be of other origin. In any case, one should take a closer look at an ovarian cyst in patients over 40 years of age. Every new one that occurred cyst should be clarified more and more closely.


Most Cysts are benign and may need to be checked. The cysts often recede on their own and simply disappear during one of the next check-ups. The checks should be done in the beginning after each Menstrual period and then every 2 months. If the regression does not occur, the administration of a hormone tablet can help. Here is the Luteal hormone which sometimes has to be taken for several months until the cyst disappears.

The regular controls in the Ultrasonic The blood flow and the size can also be constantly monitored and statements about benign or malicious Ovarian cysts to be hit. Malignant growths are almost always in large numbers Blood vessels cared for than more harmless benign cysts.

If no statement about the origin can be made through the process, one can also Laparoscopy perform and use a Tissue sample can then the Origin of the cyst to be clarified for sure.

Also at Complications, the suspicion of malignant degeneration or the lack of regression in spite of Hormone therapy an operation is usually very useful to remove the cyst. Small incisions are often sufficient and the cyst can be removed as part of a Laparoscopy removed and a large abdominal incision is rarely required.